Introduction to Economics


Foundation of Economics

  • Social Science concerned with how resources are used to satisfy wants—the economizing problem.
  • Study of how people and countries use their resources to produce, distribute and consume goods and services.
  • An examination of behaviour related to how goods and services are acquired
  • A study of how people decide who will get the goods and services.


Introduction to Economics – Meaning and Definition

Like any other discipline the definition of Economics has evolved over time.

Adams Smith defined Economics as an inquiry into the native and causes of the wealth of actions this is popular known as the wealth definition.

Other Economists who adopted his view call Economics a science wealth, however this definition was criticized as teaching selfishness and economic was referred to as dismal science.

Alfred marshal the study of man’s everyday business of life that is how man obtain his income how he uses it. This definition was criticized to be too vague in this that man’s activity were not defined and didn’t scarcity was referred to as the material definition of economic

Lord Robbin (1933) discussed Economics as the study of human behaviour as a relationship between ends (wants) and the scarce means (resource) which have alternative uses from this definition there are three implications:

  1. a) Human beings have unlimited wants that can’t be completely satisfied at any one time
  2. b) The means to meet this wants resources must be available to fulfil these
  3. c) Those resources have various alternative and competing

The first two implications resource are said to be that is limited in supply. Scarcity of resources passes a problem of choice that is how to make the best use of the scarce resource.

Economics is defined as the study of how individuals and society choose to use scarce resources. In essence, economics is a study on how individuals make choices.

Economic Perspective

Society’s material wants are unlimited and insatiable; economic resources are limited or scarce.

  • Demand for goods and services exceeds the supply
  • Material wants means that consumers want to obtain products that provide utility.
  • Necessity vs. wants
  • Wants multiply over time with new products and incomes
  • Human wants tend to be unlimited, but human, natural, and capital resources are limited

Resources are materials from which goods and services are produced.

Four types of resources are:

Land —All Natural Resources

  • Gifts of nature – Fields, Forests, Sea, Mineral deposits

Labour— Human Resources

Capital—Means of production

  • Machinery, Tools and equipment, Factories

Entrepreneurship­- a particular type of human resource

  • Business innovator

Opportunity Cost:  All decisions involve trade-offs. Opportunity cost measures the cost of the next best alternative that we give up when making a choice.

For example, when calculating the cost of college, economists think not only about the direct costs such as tuition, textbooks, living expenses, etc, but also the opportunity cost. What is the opportunity cost for going to college? This varies from individual to individual as people have different alternatives to going to college. For many individuals, they could have worked instead of going to college. The wages one could have earned is the opportunity cost of going to college.

Branches of Economics

  • Microeconomics looks at the decision making behaviour of individual decision making units:
  • Macroeconomics looks at the entire (aggregate) economy (Big Picture)

Micro vs Macro

  Production Prices Income Employment
Micro How many Pizza

does Eat More produce ?


What is the price of an

Eat More Pizza?


What are the wages of

the workers at Eat More?


How many workers are

employed at Eat More?


Macro How much goods and

services does the Country Honky Tonky produce

each year?


What is the price of all

consumer goods in the economy?


What are the total

wages and salaries of workers in the economy?


What are the total

number of workers in

an economy?



Method of Study

  1. Positive vs Normative
  • Positive approach: concerned with the investigation of this ways in which different economic agents in the society seek to achieve their goods it relates to statements such as –what is?
  • What was?
  • What will be?

It employs economic theory in explaining circumstances.

The theories are tested against observations and other information and used to construct models from which predictions are made. A theory is a reasoned assumption intended to explain an occurrence or a phenomenon a model on the other hand is a mathematical representation based on economic theory  any disagreement are appropriately settled.

  • Normative approach: It is very subjective and depends on value judgment on what is desirable its concerned with making suggestions about the ways in which society goals might be more efficiently realized it relates to statement such as:
  • What should be?
  • What ought to be?

It’s concerned with alternative policy action that helps to illuminate and sharpen debates.


  1. Descriptive vs Economic Theory

Descriptive Economics complies data that describe economic phenomena and facts. For example the Bureau of Statistics collects unemployment data for the country every month. Economists use that data to analyse the job picture in the economy.

Economic Theory attempts to interpret the data gathered. It is a statement about cause and effect. For example, data has shown that petrol prices often rise during the winter months. Economists have developed theories explaining what causes this rise in petrol prices during the winter.

  1. Economic Theory and Models

Economic models are a formal representation of economic theory.  Economic models follow the principle of Ockham’s Razor which state that irrelevant detail should be cut away.   Like a road map, economic models are simplified generalization of reality that helps explain economic behaviour. Models can be expressed in words, graphs or mathematical equations. Economist use mathematical equations to illustrate relationships between two or more variables. A variable is a measure that can change over time or across observations.


Economists will look at only one variable at a time and try to isolate its effect. This idea is called ceteris paribus (all else equal).  In the economic model, we will assume that only 1 variable is changing at a time and hold all other variables as fixed. By doing this we can clearly analyse the relationship between two variables, by holding all other variables unchanged.









Government Intervention – Price Control

Lets take up a role of Policy Maker and analyse how government policy affect the market outcome.


Government-controlled prices:

Not all markets are allowed to function freely. Supply and Demand may result in prices that are unfair to buyers or to sellers. Government may set a price and it may differ from the equilibrium price that the market sets.

This action will interfere with the “clearing function” which equilibrium conditions create. A shortage (as in the case of a price that is below equilibrium) or a surplus (as in the case of a price that is above equilibrium) is the result of these government price setting actions.

  • There are two types of price control: price ceilings and price floors. Price ceilings sets a legal maximum price at which a goods can be sold. A price floors  sets a legal minimum price at which a good can be sold.
  • Price Ceilings: In a competitive market, a price that is below the equilibrium causes shortages, because quantity demanded exceeds quantity supplied. The resulting shortage tends to put upward pressure  on price until it goes back to equilibrium and eliminating the shortage. On the  other hand, if the government sets a price ceiling that is above or higher than the equilibrium price, it will have no effect.

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Elasticity and it’s application


The Law of Demand says……Consumers will buy more when prices go down and less when prices go up.

BUT …….


Does it really matters?


Elasticity is ……..

  • is a measure of how much buyers and sellers respond to changes in market conditions.
  • It allows us to analyze supply and demand with greater precision.

Price elasticity of demand

  • is the responsiveness of consumers to a change in the price of a product. Shows how sensitive consumers are to a change in price.
  • The price elasticity of demand is computed as:

Ed= Percentage in quantity demanded

Percentage change in price

Ed= ∆ in Q   ÷ ∆ in P

Q             P

  • Be sure to use absolute values and ignore the — sign; useful for comparing different products.

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What is Economics?

Economic issues affects are daily lives ,whether reading a newspaper on a report on “local market”, watching state of economy on the television news, even discussing with friends and colleagues regarding the price of a product or whether you can afford this or that.

Economic problem and making decision are part and parcel of our lives. What should I buy? Should I go into University or Tafe? Should I go to University or should I work and earn?

Cartoon Wants and Resourses

 What is Economics all about?

For economist, “scarcity” is the central economic problem.

What is scarcity?

Although our wants are unlimited, resources available to fulfill those wants are limited.

What is the solution?

People must make choices as they try to achieve their goals. This is the basic fact of life.

What does choices reflect?

Every choice reflects trade- offs or sacrifice as we are living in a world of scarcity. For every choice we make we pay a cost and that cost in economics is called Opportunity Cost.

This economic problem is also known as “scarcity problem”, which is an universal problem.

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Demand and Supply

What is a market?

Market a group of buyers and sellers of a particular good or service


What is competition?

A Competitive Market is defined as a market in which there are many buyers and

sellers so that each has a negligible impact on the market price

In such markets firms will often charge the same price, as any firm that charges

less will gain an advantage and all other firms will lower their price to avoid losing

market share. On the other hand, any firm that raises it’s price will not be able to sell goods, as customers will buy from the cheaper retailers.

In the text in this section, we will assume that firms are perfectly competitive,

which occurs when two conditions are met;

• the goods offered for sale need to be exactly the same (we call this homogenous);


• the buyers and sellers must be so numerous that no buyer or seller has influence over the market price. The market for rice is an example of a perfectly competitive market insofar as there are thousands of producers, and millions (if not billions) of customers. Not all markets are perfectly competitive.


The concept of demand is probably the most important concept in economics, and large bodies of economic work are dedicated to it. We define demand as follows;

Quantity demanded is the amount of a good that buyers are willing and able to

In addition to this the main characteristic of demand has been so widely proven

so , as to be given the status of a ‘law’; Continue reading

The Gains from Trade: Production Possibilities


Problem of “What to produce”?

An economy has limited resources and wants are unlimited. Wants are satisfied by goods and services which are to be produced with the help of resources, so all goods and services cannot be produced. The economy has to decide which goods are to be produced.

Problem of “For whom to produce”?

Good and services are produced specifically for the people who can purchase them. Purchasing power depends on the distribution of National among factors of Production. The problem amounts to how the National Product is to be distributed among the people. It means who should get how much of the total amount of goods and services. Those have the larger income would have larger capacity to buy and hence will get larger amount of goods. People with different incomes will demand different goods. Therefore the guiding principle of how much to be produced depends on people with different purchasing power.

Problem of “What to produce”?

Since resources are limited all goods and services desired cannot be produced. If more resources are used for producing one good then fewer resources are left for producing other goods. Production Possibility is the Production Possibility Curve. All points on the curve represents all possible combination of goods (A&B) that can be produced with the given resources. Which combination to choose is the problem of “what to produce”. Let’s analyze with a simple example where there are two goods traded. Let’s consider wheat and rice produced by two farmers, one wheat farmer and one rice farmer, living in different states of a country. Continue reading